Dr Emmanuel
Dr Emmanuel
Orthopaedic Surgeon

Pain Management

Pain is an unpleasant feeling or discomfort caused by injury, illness or emotional disorder. Pain can be differentiated into two basic types such as:

  • Acute pain – It results from disease, inflammation, or injury. This type of pain starts suddenly, for example, after accidental trauma or surgery.
  • Chronic pain – It is caused by a disease itself. Both environmental and psychological factors can worsen it. It persists for a longer period of time. Chronic pain conditions include chronic fatigue syndrome, endometriosis, fibromyalgia, inflammatory bowel disease, interstitial cystitis, temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction, and vulvodynia.

Complete acute and chronic pain conditions evaluation

Your doctor will make a diagnosis based on the history of pain you have narrated such as type of pain – whether sharp or dull aching pain, duration and location of pain.

There are various diagnostic techniques used to find the cause of pain and some of them include:

  • Electro diagnostic procedures – Electromyography (EMG), nerve conduction studies, and evoked potential (EP) studies.
    • Electromyography (EMG) – help to find out which muscles or nerves are affected by weakness or pain.
    • Nerve conduction studies – determine if there is any nerve damage.
    • Evoked Potential (EP) – is used to record the speed of nerve signal sent to the brain.
  • Imaging, especially Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is use of magnetic waves to differentiate diseased and healthy tissues.

  • A neurological examination involves testing for movement, reflexes, sensation, balance, and coordination.
  • X-rays used to see the deformities of bones and joints.

Treatment

The ultimate goal of pain management is to improve the function of an individual by enabling him to carry out his day-to- day activities in a normal way. There are many ways by which pain can be treated.

  • Medications

    Analgesic medications: These are pain relieving medications. Anticonvulsants are used to relieve pain caused by trigeminal neuralgia. Antidepressants are also prescribed. In addition, anti-anxiety drugs are used to relieve muscle pain. Antimigraine drugs are used to relieve migraine headaches. These medications should be taken only on doctor’s advice as they can cause serious adverse effects.

  • Physical therapy

    Physical therapy involves use of physical techniques and methods, such as heat, cold, exercise, massage, and manipulation, in the treatment of certain chronic pain conditions. These techniques help to increase function, control pain, and rehabilitate the patient.

    Heat and cold therapy help to relieve pain when applied to the painful areas. Physical exercises include stretching and range-of-motion exercises to maintain strength, flexibility, and mobility. Regular exercises relieve stress and also increase production of endorphins-natural pain relievers.

  • Psychological evaluation and therapy

    Psychological counseling such as behavioral therapy improves your mental health and manages conditions such as stress and depression which can aggravate chronic pain. It is important to be physically as well as emotionally stable to manage chronic pain.

Other Procedures

Conditions

  • North American Spine Society
  • California Medical Association
  • Spine Arthroplasty Society